New filtering methods with “vibroseis”
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 14, No 4, December 1966 pp. 455 - 469
Info: Article, PDF ( 993.11Kb )
In order to obtain high resolution correlograms, it is of importance amongst other things to get reflection signals with large bandwidth. An advantage of the VIBROSEIS method is that the frequencies radiated by the vibrators can be matched to the transmission response of the subsurface involved. By choosing the right frequency range, the highest possible amplitude and most favourable form may be given to the reflection signals.
In a reflection correlogram, individual signals cannot be considered in isolation. Signals of different origin are interfering with one another. They very often have different amplitudes, so that it may be desirable in many cases to filter out events of certain apparent velocity. With the VIBROSEIS method this may be achieved quite simply. All frequencies of the noise signal are uniformly suppressed. The advantage is that noise signals, e.g. refraction signals, which cannot be sufficiently attenuated by wavelength filtering, may be completely eliminated by this velocity filtering without affecting the bandwith of the desired signal. The total dynamic range of the tape recording can be used for the registration of wanted events. To perform this kind of filtering several vibrators are necessary in the field; each of them is controlled by an individual signal.
There is an unavoidable error of static and dynamic corrections which causes the results of reflection measurements to deteriorate when using multiple coverage. High frequency components especially are seriously affected by destructive interference. This difficulty can be avoided by using a VIBROSEIS signal with high frequency component amplitudes supported. For the probability of error of corrections a normal distribution is assumed. A smoothed amplitude characteristic may be achieved after stacking.
The amplitude characteristic of seismic devices is commonly reduced to about 100 cps bandwidth. For further improvement of resolution of VIBROSEIS correlograms it is necessary to apply special filtering methods. This is of particular interest when any kind of gain control is used to display weak events more clearly. With increasing amplification the sidelobes of the strong signals may reach the size of the weak events. In order to eliminate this effect, the amplitude characteristic of the VIBROSEIS signal is adjusted for optimum suppression of side-lobes.