Sea surface shape derivation above the seismic streamer
Robert Laws and Ed Kragh
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 54, No 6, November 2006 pp. 817 - 828
Special topic: Section I – Madrid Workshop on Near-Surface 2005
Info: Article, PDF ( 625.5Kb )
The rough sea surface causes perturbations in the seismic data that can be significant for time-lapse studies. The perturbations arise because the reflection response of the non-flat sea perturbs the seismic wavelet. In order to remove these perturbations from the received seismic data, special deconvolution methods can be used, but these methods require, as input, the time varying wave elevation above each hydrophone in the streamer. In addition, the vertical displacement of the streamer itself must also be known at the position of each hydrophone and at all times. This information is not available in conventional seismic acquisition. However, it can be obtained from the hydrophone measurements provided that the hydrophones are recorded individually (not grouped), that the recording bandwidth is extended down to 0.05 Hz and that data are recorded without gaps between the shot records.
The sea surface elevation, and also the wave-induced vertical displacement of the streamer, can be determined from the time-varying pressure that the sea waves cause in the hydrophone measurements. When this was done experimentally, using a single sensor seismic streamer without a conventional low cut filter, the wave induced pressure variations were easily detected. The inversion of these experimental data gives results for the sea surface elevation that are consistent with the weather and sea state at the time of acquisition. A high tension approximation allows a simplified solution of the equations that does not demand a knowledge of the streamer tension. However, best results at the tail end of the streamer are obtained using the general equation.