An airborne tensor VLF system. From concept to realization
Laust B. Pedersen, Wei Qian, Lars Dynesius and Ping Zhang
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 42, No 8, November 1994 pp. 863 - 883
Info: Article, PDF ( 1.74Mb )
Radio signals from very low frequency (VLF) transmitters distributed world-wide have been used for several decades to study the lateral variations of the electrical conductivity in the upper few hundred metres of the earth's crust. Traditionally, in airborne applications, the total magnetic fields from one or two transmitters are measured to form the basis for construction of maps that primarily show those conductive structures that are parallel or subparallel to the direction to the transmitters. The tensor VLF technique described in this paper makes use of all signals available in a predefined frequency band to construct transfer functions relating the vertical magnetic field and the two horizontal magnetic field components. These transfer functions are uniquely determined for a particular measuring site and contain information about the lateral conductivity variations in all directions. First experiences with real field data, acquired during a test survey in Sweden, show that maps of the so-called peaker, the spatial divergence of the transfer functions, give an image of the conducting structures. Most of the structures can be correlated to small valleys filled with conducting sediments or valleys underlain by conductive fracture zones in the crystalline rocks.