Velocity model updating using image gathers
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 42, No 8, November 1994 pp. 975 - 986
Info: Article, PDF ( 583.56Kb )
For successful prestack depth migration an accurate velocity model is needed. One method for model updating is based on image gather analysis. In an image gather all reflectors line up horizontally if the correct velocities are used for the depth migration. This is also true for dipping reflectors, as all traces of an image gather belong to the same surface coordinate. The images of the reflector in an image gather curve upwards if the velocity used for the migration is too low, or downwards if the velocity is too high. This deviation can be used for model updating. Curves which depend on depth, offset and a parameter which relates the estimated to the true model are fitted to the image. By calculating the coherence along the deviation curves, this parameter can be estimated and hence an update can be calculated.
Formulae are derived for the deviation curves and the update of the velocity depth model for a multilayered model for both shot and common-offset migrated data, with and without gradients. The method is tested on synthetic data with satisfactory results.