Monitoring and volumetric estimation of injected CO2 using 4D seismic, petrophysical data, core measurements and well logging: a case study at Ketzin, Germany
A. Ivanova, A. Kashubin, N. Juhojuntti, J. Kummerow, J. Henninges, C. Juhlin, S. Lüth and M. Ivandic
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 60, No 5, September 2012 pp. 957 - 973
Info: Article, PDF ( 1.74Mb )
More than 50 000 tons of CO2 have been injected at Ketzin into the Stuttgart Formation, a saline aquifer, at approximately 620 m depth, as of summer 2011. We present here results from the 1st repeat 3D seismic survey that was performed at the site in autumn 2009, after about 22 000 tons of CO2 had been injected. We show here that rather complex time-lapse signatures of this CO2 can be clearly observed within a radius of about 300 m from the injection well. The highly irregular amplitude response within this radius is attributed to the heterogeneity of the injection reservoir. Time delays to a reflection below the injection level are also observed. Petrophysical measurements on core samples and geophysical logging of CO2 saturation levels allow an estimate of the total amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data to be made. These estimates are somewhat lower than the actual amount of CO2 injected at the time of the survey and they are dependent upon the choice of a number of parameters. In spite of some uncertainty, the close agreement between the amount injected and the amount observed is encouraging for quantitative monitoring of a CO2 storage site using seismic methods.