Contribution of a three-dimensional regional scale basin model to the study of the past fluid flow evolution and the present hydrology of the Paris basin, France
J. Gonçalvès, S. Violette, F. Guillocheau, C. Robin, M. Pagel, D. Bruel, G. de Marsily and E. Ledoux
Journal name: Basin Research
Issue: Vol 16, No 4, December 2004 pp. 569 - 586
Info: Article, PDF ( 866.73Kb )
A basin model was built to simulate in three dimensions the 248 Myr geological history of the Paris basin, France, i.e. sedimentation, erosion, compaction heat and fluid flow. This multi disciplinary study was based on a detailed stratigraphic database of more than 1100 well logs together with a hydrodynamic database of 1000 data (heads and permeabilities). The region covers a maximum surface area of 700 000 km2. The NEWBAS code of the Ecole des Mines de Paris was used in order to simulate compaction and heat and fluid flow. Three examples of the use of this model are given to illustrate different features of the geological functioning of the basin. (i) By modelling processes such as sedimentation, compaction, fluid and heat flow, the model provides estimates of the hydraulic conductivity fields within one order of magnitude from observations at the regional scale. This permeability field can reproduce the present-day observed pressures and fluxes in the basin. (ii)Observed excess pressures in the main aquitards are considered as possible consequences of the geological history of the basin. The calculated excess pressures are small and stay within the range of the measured values, between 0 and 2.75MPa, close to the pressures in the aquifers. However, the weak excess pressures measured in the Callovo-Oxfordian sequence in the eastern part of the basin are not reproduced by the model. Mechanisms other than compaction disequilibrium must be invoked. (iii) This model also calculates regional- scale palaeofluid flow whose value is currently arbitrarily assumed by geochemists when studying diagenetic processes. Hence, it provides a hydrologic background for diagenetic models. The cementation in the western Keuper reservoirs was investigated. Topographically driven flow during tectonic inversion periods, e.g. the Lower Cretaceous and Early Tertiary, is shown to be a plausible cause of brin emigrations. This brine displacement would then explain the high salinities recorded in the fluid inclusions trapped in the Keuper cements. The conditions for the migration would have been most favourable at the time of the maximum burial, i.e. the Early Tertiary and not the Early Cretaceous as previously suggested.