Development and Testing of Mathematical Algorithms for Source and Streamer Positioning during Marine Seismic Exploration
V. Gikas, P.A. Cross and A. Asiama-Akuamoa
Event name: 4th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society
Session: Seismic Acquisition
Publication date: 20 August 1995
Info: Extended abstract, PDF ( 2.24Mb )
In order to analyse 3D offshore seismic data and utilise the final geophysical product it is necessary to know the position of each gun and hydrophone in the spread for each shot. In recent years the problem has become extremely complex, mainly due to an expansion of the type and quantity of survey data collected. Moreover it has become increasingly common for clients to require proof (often in real time) that the survey 'quality' specifications are being met. Hence there is today a real need to develop a completely general (for flexibility purposes), rigorous and integrated (for error propagation, and therefore QA/QC purposes) approach to the positioning of guns and hydrophones during seismic exploration and this paper is an attempt to address that need. It describes the mathematical basis and implementation of a Kalman filter that can, in principle, handle any number of vessels, streamers and guns and any set of observations to produce either realtime or post-processed positions and quality (precision and reliability) measures - a filter that can also be used prior to data collection to test the suitability of a proposed set of measurements to meet the positioning quality specifications. The paper also describes tests that were conducted using a real set of marine seismic positioning data.