Ordovician Source Rocks and Devonian Oil Expulsion on Bolide Impact at Siljan, Sweden - The Re-Os Story
H.J. Stein and J.L. Hannah, G. Yang, R. Galimberti and M. Nali
Event name: IPTC 2014: International Petroleum Technology Conference
Session: Session 32: E&P GEOSCIENCE - Source Rock and Geochemistry
Publication date: 19 January 2014
Info: Extended abstract, PDF ( 1.05Mb )
Price: € 20
To test the effectiveness of the Re-Os system for tracing source rocks and marking the time of maturation and expulsion, we examined a natural system in which key variables are controlled. Hydrocarbon source rocks (Late Ordovician Fjäcka shale) and adjacent, partly contemporaneous reservoir rocks (carbonate mounds) are exceptionally well exposed in quarries, drill core and outcrop in the Siljan area of central Sweden. At 377 Ma, a giant meteorite impacted the region heating Early Paleozoic sections, including immature Ordovician-Silurian hydrocarbon source rocks. Oil seeps and asphaltene coatings in carbonates just outside the Siljan impact crater attest to hydrocarbon maturation associated with the impact. The size of the impact supports elevated temperatures over a maturation-migration period of 10 to 1000 Ka, not unlike that for some sedimentary basins. The Siljan “field laboratory” permits sampling of source rock and migrated oils in immediately adjacent units – uniquely, with the time of maturation temporally pinned by the bolide impact. Through Re-Os analyses of the source rock and analyses of the oil it generated, we found the Re-Os isotopic system to be intact at two of three shale localities, obtaining the expected late Ordovician and early Silurian depositional ages. In contrast, the Re-Os isotopic compositions and erratically varying Os concentrations derived from the oil seeps suggest infusion of shale-derived oil with Os derived from the bolide. Thus, we show that shales generally retain their Os isotopic systematics, even under extraordinary circumstances, whereas small quantities of migrating oil at Siljan were easily overwhelmed by the strong Os isotopic signature carried by the bolide.