Fracture detection by Gaussian beam imaging of seismic data and image spectrum analysis
M.I. Protasov, G.V. Reshetova and V.A. Tcheverda
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 64, No 1, January 2016 pp. 68 - 82
Info: Article, PDF ( 2.57Mb )
Localization of fractured areas is of primary interest in the study of oil and gas geology in carbonate environments. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in these environments are embedded within an impenetrable rock matrix but possess a rich system of various microheterogeneities, i.e., cavities, cracks, and fractures. Cavities accumulate oil, but its flow is governed by a system of fractures. A distinctive feature of wave propagation in such media is the excitation of the scattered/diffracted waves by the microheterogeneities. This scattering could be a reliable attribute for characterization of the fine structure of reservoirs, but it has extremely low energy and any standard data processing renders them practically invisible in comparison with images produced by specular reflections. Therefore, any attempts to use these waves for image congestion of microheterogeneities should first have a preliminary separation of the scattering and specular reflections. In this paper, the approach to performing this separation is based on the asymmetric summation. It is implemented by double focusing of Gaussian beams. To do this, the special weights are computed by propagating Gaussian beams from the target area towards the acquisition system separately for sources and receivers. The different mutual positioning of beams in each pair introduces a variety of selective images that are destined to represent some selected singular primitives of the target objects such as fractures, cavities, and edges. In this way, one can construct various wave images of a target reservoir, particularly in scattered/diffracted waves. Additional removal of remnants of specular reflections is done by means of spectral analysis of the scattered/diffracted waves’ images to recognize and cancel extended lineaments. Numerical experiments with Sigsbee 2A synthetic seismic data and some typical structures of the Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye oil field in East Siberia are presented and discussed.