Joint up/down decomposition and reconstruction using three-component streamers with or without ghost model: the sampling theory
Zijian Tang and Xander Campman
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 65, No 4, July 2017 pp. 956 - 980
Info: Article, PDF ( 5.91Mb )
This paper addresses two artefacts inherent to marine towed-streamer surveys: 1) ghost reflections and 2) too sparse a sampling in the crossline direction. A ghost reflection is generated when an upcoming reflection bounces off the sea surface back into the sensors and can, in principle, be removed by decomposing the measured wavefield into its up- and downgoing constituents. This process requires a dense sampling of the wavefield in both directions along and perpendicular to the streamers. A dense sampling in the latter direction is, however, often impossible due to economical and operational constraints. Recent multi-component streamers have been designed to record the spatial gradients on top of the pressure, which not only benefits the wavefield decomposition but also facilitates a lower-than-Nyquist sampling rate of the pressure. In this paper, wavefield reconstruction and deghosting are posed as a joint inverse problem.We present two approaches to establish a system matrix that embeds both a deghosting and an interpolation operator. The first approach is derived with a ghost model, whereas the second approach is derived without a ghost model. The embodiment of a ghost model leads to an even lower sampling rate but relies on a more restrictive assumption on the sea surface.