Reservoir delineation beneath a heterogeneous shallow gas overburden using ‘True-3D’ seismic imaging approaches
A.R. Ghazali, N. ElKady, M.F. Abd Rahim, R.J.J. Hardy, F.S. Dzukelfi, S. Chandola, S. Kumar, S. Shukri, S.M.T. Mohi Eldin, S.S. Elkudry, N.L. Rafiuddin, S. Maitra, F.F. Basir, M.L. Ghazali, M.H.F. Abdul Latib and S. Zainal
Journal name: First Break
Issue: Vol 36, No 11, November 2018 pp. 89 - 96
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Imaging through a heterogeneous shallow gas-charged overburden, such as a gas cloud, presents several imaging challenges and is a demanding problem to solve. Our preferred technical solution for imaging beneath gas clouds is to utilize converted wave imaging (Radzi et al., 2015), but this is not always available or cost effective and velocity model building is still difficult. Many previous case studies have been produced from Malaysia which demonstrate subsurface imaging techniques and improvements for fields affected by gas clouds, e.g., Akalin et al. (2010); El Kady et al. (2012); Abd Rahim et al. (2013); Ghazali et al. (2016) and Gudipati et al. (2018). In this paper, we describe a new comprehensive high-density experimental project to readdress these ever-challenging seismic issues by imaging the reservoir from both above and within existing boreholes. The integration of multiple technologies has significantly improved the subsurface images of the field including better-quality velocity models below gas clouds. The new data reveal a larger scale of near-surface heterogeneities than previously expected and future studies will selectively reprocess subsets of the acquired data in order to optimize the images; and, by extension to other similar fields, address a cost-effective imaging strategy.