Surfactant Flooding in Offshore Environments
J. Southwick, E. Van den Pol, C.H.T. Van Rijn, D.W. Van Batenburg, A.A. A Manap, A.A. Kalantar Mastan and N.N. Zulkifli
Event name: IOR 2019 – 20th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery
Session: Best of Tulsa
Publication date: 08 April 2019
Info: Extended abstract, PDF ( 1.81Mb )
Price: € 20
A low complexity chemical flooding formulation has been developed for application in offshore environments. The formulation uses seawater with no additional water treatment beyond that which is normally performed for water flooding (filtration, de-oxygenation, etc.). The formulation is a mixture of an alkyl propoxy sulfate (APS) and an alkyl ethoxy sulfate (AES) with no cosolvent. With seawater only (no salinity gradient) the blend of APS and AES gives substantially higher oil recovery than a blend of APS and internal olefin sulfonate (IOS) in outcrop sandstone. It is shown that the highest oil recovery is obtained with surfactant blends that produce formulations that are underoptimum (Winsor Type 1 phase behavior) with reservoir crude oil. Also, these underoptimum formulations avoid high injection pressures seen with optimum formulations in low permeability outcrop rock. The formulation recovers a similar amount of oil in reservoir rock in the swept zone. Overall recovery in reservoir rock is lower than outcrop sandstone due to greater heterogeneity, which causes bypassing of crude oil.