Imaging artefacts of artificial diving waves in reverse time migration: cause analysis in the angle domain and an effective removal strategy
S. Liu, Z. Yan, H. Gu, Y. Tang and C. Liu
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 67, No 3, March 2019 pp. 496 - 507
Info: Article, PDF ( 4.61Mb )
In areas with strong velocity gradients, traditional reverse time migration based on cross-correlation imaging condition not only produces low-frequency noise but also generates diving wave artefacts. The artefacts caused by diving waves have no typical low-frequency characteristics and cannot be eliminated by simple high-pass filtering approaches. We apply the wave-field decomposition imaging condition to analyse the causes of false images in reverse time migration by decomposing the full wavefield into up-going and down-going components in the angle domain. We find that artificial diving wave imaging artefacts, which are generated by the cross-correlation between the up-going source and down-going receiver wave-fields in areas with strong velocity gradients, arise at large angles. We propose an efficient strategy by means of the wavelength-dependent smoothing operator to eliminate artefacts from artificial diving waves in reverse time migration. Specifically, the proposed method provides more reasonable down-going wave-fields in areas with sharp velocity constructs by considering the factor of varying seismic wavelengths during wave propagation, and the artificial components of diving waves are eliminated in a straightforward manner. Meanwhile, the other wave-field components that contribute to true subsurface images are minimally affected. Benefiting from a smoothed velocity, the proposed method can be adapted to the traditional reverse time migration imaging frame, which reveals significant implementation potential for the seismic exploration industry. A salt model is designed and included to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.