Image-domain wavefield tomography for tilted transversely isotropic media
V. Li, I. Tsvankin, A. Guitton and H. Wang
Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue: Vol 67, No 9, November 2019 pp. 2358 - 2367
Info: Article, PDF ( 3.56Mb )
Transversely isotropic models with a tilted symmetry axis have become standard for imaging beneath dipping shale formations and in active tectonic areas. Here, we develop a methodology of wave-equation-based image-domain tomography for acoustic tilted transversely isotropic media. We obtain the gradients of the objective function using an integral wave-equation operator based on a separable dispersion relation that takes the symmetry-axis tilt into account. In contrast to the more conventional differential solutions, the integral operator produces only the P-wavefield without shear-wave artefacts, which facilitates both imaging and velocity analysis. The model is parameterized by the P-wave zero-dip normal-moveout velocity, the Thomsen parameter δ, anellipticity coefficient η and the symmetry-axis tilt θ. Assuming that the symmetry axis is orthogonal to reflectors, we study the influence of parameter errors on energy focusing in extended (space-lag) common-image gathers. Distortions in the anellipticity coefficient η introduce weak linear defocusing regardless of reflector dip, whereas δ influences both the energy focusing and depth scale of the migrated section. These results, which are consistent with the properties of the P-wave time-domain reflection moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media, provide important insights for implementation of velocity model-building in the image-domain. Then the algorithm is tested on a modified anticline section of the BP 2007 benchmark model.